Following a referendum, Parliament drafted an Electoral Reform Bill, incorporating the abolition of the Māori electorates. Shortly after each census all registered Māori electors have the opportunity to choose whether they are included on the Māori or General electorate rolls. Both the National Party and Geoffrey Palmer, Labour's leading reformist, supported abolition; but most Māori strongly opposed it. This had little practical effect for people on the general roll, but it transferred Māori to the general roll if the card was not handed in. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International. Meshblocks, which aggregate to form electorates, are updated annually by Stats NZ. But I just want people to feel that they all have opportunities for representation". Second, the geographical size of the Māori electoral boundaries vary significantly from the general electorates. Māori MPs in the Liberal Party included James Carroll, Āpirana Ngata and Te Rangi Hīroa. The Mana Movement retained Te Tai Tokerau. Periodically there have been calls for the abolition of the Māori seats. The gradual improvement of Māori elections owes much to long-serving Māori MP Eruera Tirikatene, who himself experienced problems in his own election. We calculate the Māori electoral population, number of Māori electorates and electoral quota using the formula specified in the Electoral Act 1993.  Māori owned a great deal of land, but they held it in common, not under individual title, and under the law, only land held under individual title could count towards the property qualification. The first Māori elections were held in the following year during the term of the 4th New Zealand Parliament. We've asked every electorate candidate about their priorities for your community and why they deserve your vote. National announced in 2008 it would abolish the electorates when all historic Treaty settlements have been resolved, which it aimed to complete by 2014. WHAKATAU 2020 Election Debate: With the highest voter turnout of any Māori seat, the northern Te Tai Tokerau is never silent. New Zealand First also advocates abolition of the separate electorates but says that the Māori voters should make the decision. Five to 18 general electorates fit into any one Māori electorate.. Periodically there have been calls for the abolition of the Māori seats. For a long period this dominance owed much to Labour's alliance with the Rātana Church, although the Rātana influence has diminished in recent times. , Confusion around the Māori electorates during the 2017 general election was revealed in a number of complaints to the Electoral Commission. Eleven electorates have had name changes. Tensions between the Māori Party and Mana Movement combined with competition from the Labour Party fragmented the Māori political voice in Parliament. Like Elizabeth McCombs, New Zealand's first woman MP, Ratana won the seat in a hotly contested by-election caused by the death of her husband Matiu in 1949.. During the 2017 general election, the Māori Party formed an electoral pact with the Mana Movement leader and former Māori Party MP Hone Harawira not to contest Te Tai Tokerau as part of a deal to regain the Māori electorates from the Labour Party. In the first MMP vote (the 1996 election), the Electoral Commission defined five Māori electorates: A sixth Māori electorate was added for the second MMP election in 1999: Since 2002, there have been seven Māori electorates. As Māori electorates originated before the development of political parties in New Zealand, all early Māori MPs functioned as independents.  In return for forming a government with the Labour Party, NZ First agreed to drop its demand for referenda on abolishing the Māori electorates.  However this policy may be changing. The 2020 electorate boundaries reflect a number of minor technical adjustments to meshblock boundaries, not involving population i.e. , In 1967, the electoral system whereby four electorate seats were reserved for representatives who were specifically Māori ended. To support users with the compatibility of the data and the applications they might be using, additional fields are also provided in ASCII format.  The lobby group Hobson's Pledge advocates abolishing the allocated Māori seats, seeing them as outdated. , The Māori electorates were introduced in 1867 under the Maori Representation Act. These boundaries comprise the seven Māori electorates released by the Representation Commission in April 2020. The establishment of Māori electorates came about in 1867 during the term of the 4th Parliament with the Maori Representation Act, drafted by Napier member of parliament Donald McLean. These MPs represent 64 general electorate seats and seven Māori electorates. The Representation Commission is convened by the Surveyor-General, its role is to re-draw electorate boundaries to make sure each electorate has about the same number of people. Almost three-quarters of New Zealand's 65 general and seven Māori electorates were considered safe for the incumbents. in, NZGD2000 / New Zealand Transverse Mercator 2000, MED2020_V1_00,  While it remains National Party policy to abolish the electorates, Prime Minister John Key ruled it out as recently as August 2014, saying he would not do it even if he had the numbers to do so as there would be "hikois from hell".  The act originally agreed to set up four electorates specially for Māori three in the North Island and one covering the whole South Island. Māori electorates operate much as do general electorates, but have as electors people who are Māori or of Māori descent, and who choose to place their names on a separate electoral roll rather than on the "general roll". In the 2017 general election, 19,251 valid candidate votes were cast, only a 59% turn out – the lowest of all seven Māori electorates. From the election of 1951 onwards, the voting for Māori and general electorates was held on the same day. Find out more about the electorate profiles for New Zealand's seven Māori electorates and the 65 general electorates. When the Liberal Party formed, however, Māori MPs began to align themselves with the new organisation, with either Liberal candidates or Liberal sympathisers as representatives. Historically, less organisation went into holding Māori elections than general elections, and the process received fewer resources.
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