beaufort scale measure

Nowadays, the extended scale is only used in Taiwan and mainland China, which are often affected by typhoons. For the videogame, see, The names "storm" and "hurricane" on the Beaufort scale refer only to wind strength, and do not necessarily mean that other severe weather (for instance, a, First International Meteorological Conference in Brussels, "National Meteorological Library and Archive Fact sheet 6 — The Beaufort Scale", National Meteorological Library and Archive, Historical Wind Speed Equivalents Of The Beaufort Scale, Ireland's Beaufort was Windscale Inventor, The Beaufort Scale and Weather Diaries of Rear Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort,, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Ripples with appearance of scales are formed, without foam crests. Hong Kong and Macau retain force 12 as the maximum. [1] In the 18th century, naval officers made regular weather observations, but there was no standard scale and so they could be very subjective – one man's "stiff breeze" might be another's "soft breeze". Met Éireann issues a "Small Craft Warning" if winds of Beaufort force 6 (mean wind speed exceeding 22 knots) are expected up to 10 nautical miles offshore. These numbers are only used in the areas around China and Taiwan. It depicts the force of wind by a series of numbers from 0 to 12. Where v is the equivalent wind speed at 10 metres above the sea surface and B is Beaufort scale number. In the United States, winds of force 6 or 7 result in the issuance of a small craft advisory, with force 8 or 9 winds bringing about a gale warning, force 10 or 11 a storm warning ("a tropical storm warning" being issued instead of the latter two if the winds relate to a tropical cyclone), and force 12 a hurricane-force wind warning (or hurricane warning if related to a tropical cyclone). Beaufort's name was also attached to the Beaufort scale for weather reporting: In this scale the weather could be reported as "s.c." for snow and detached cloud or "g.r.q." Small waves becoming longer; fairly frequent white horses.

Actually, the Beaufort scale goes all the way to 17, but the last five numbers only apply to tropical typhoons. ; "Storm Force Warnings" are issued if Beaufort force 10 or frequent gusts of at least 61 knots are expected; "Violent Storm Force Warnings" are issued if Beaufort force 11 or frequent gusts of at least 69 knots are expected; "Hurricane Force Warnings" are issued if winds of greater than 64 knots are expected.

This article was most recently revised and updated by,, ripples with appearance of scales are formed, without foam crests, small wavelets still short but more pronounced; crests have a glassy appearance but do not break, large wavelets; crests begin to break; foam of glassy appearance; perhaps scattered white horses, small waves becoming longer; fairly frequent white horses, moderate waves taking a more pronounced long form; many white horses are formed; chance of some spray, large waves begin to form; the white foam crests are more extensive everywhere; probably some spray, sea heaps up and white foam from breaking waves begins to be blown in streaks along the direction of the wind; spindrift begins to be seen, moderately high waves of greater length; edges of crests break into spindrift; foam is blown in well-marked streaks along the direction of the wind, high waves; dense streaks of foam along the direction of the wind; sea begins to roll; spray affects visibility, very high waves with long overhanging crests; resulting foam in great patches is blown in dense white streaks along the direction of the wind; on the whole the surface of the sea takes on a white appearance; rolling of the sea becomes heavy; visibility affected, exceptionally high waves; small- and medium-sized ships might be for a long time lost to view behind the waves; sea is covered with long white patches of foam; everywhere the edges of the wave crests are blown into foam; visibility affected, the air is filled with foam and spray; sea is completely white with driving spray; visibility very seriously affected. High waves; dense streaks of foam along the direction of the wind; sea begins to roll; spray affects visibility. Twigs break off trees; generally impedes progress.

Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Beaufort succeeded in standardising the scale.

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